El doble crimen de los deforestadores
Entrevista a Joao Pedro Stedile 25/09/11
¿Cuáles medidas deben ser tomadas para ampliar el control e impedir la deforestación del país?
Segundo, es necesario reforzar los organismos federales y estaduales de fiscalización para que controlen, apliquen la ley y las penalidades correspondientes a quienes la violen. Tercero, es preciso crear un mapa agrícola restrictivo, que impida acceder al crédito rural y a otros incentivos para, por ejemplo, vedar el avance de la soja y la ganadería por arriba de determinado paralelo en la Amazonia Legal. Cuarto, el gobierno brasileño debería prohibir la exportación de madera originaria de los bosques nativos. Así eliminaría un mercado externo que no beneficia al pueblo brasileño y sólo atiende a la ganancia de las empresas transnacionales. Y quinto, que se impida cualquier modalidad de fabricación de carbón vegetal, con el bosque nativo, con los Biomas del Cerrado y de la Amazonia. Y que se aplique la Constitución en lo que ella determina: las propiedades que no cumplen la función social y no respetan el medio ambiente, tienen que ser expropiadas y destinadas a la reforma agraria.
¿Y eso está sucediendo?
Por último, necesitamos cambiar nuestra política de producción de carne bovina, que hoy se destina en su mayor parte a la exportación, como carne natural, sin ningún proceso de industrialización. Somos exportadores de naturaleza y no de trabajo, de mano de obra. Así, exportaríamos menos, pero con mayor valor agregado y desarrollaríamos una ganadería intensiva, sin depender de la expansión de la Amazonia.
Joâo Pedro Stédile es un reconocido economista agrario, dirigente del movimiento internacional Vía Campesina. Traducción al español para www.sinpermiso.info: Carlos Abel Suárez.
Joao Pedro Stedile Interview 25/09/11
In addition to deforestation, they alter the balance of nature. Their methods challenge the imagination. Now they use planes to spray herbicides on vast regions of the Amazon. One of the most serious crime, as discussed João Pedro Stédile, one of the main leaders of the Movement of Landless Workers (MST), reveals the arrogance of the big landowners in the region. Stédile was interviewed by Ze Dirceu Blog.
How do you assess the recent information on the use of herbicides in areas of deforestation in the Amazon?
JPS: It's a shame. It shows the arrogance of the big landowners, who consider themselves absolute masters of nature and act without any social responsibility. Act contrary to what determines our Constitution, which determines the land use according to social and environmental friendliness. This is a double crime. First, because deforested beyond what is permitted and therefore they were fined by IBAMA (Brazilian Environmental Institute). Second, because they use a poison chemical composition, which kills all forms of plant and animal life, which alters the balance of nature. Everything to plant monocultures of pastures, breeding cows and always seek the maximum gain, without any commitment to others.
What steps should be taken to extend control and prevent deforestation of the country?
JPS: First, I hope there is no change in the forest code, which is being discussed in Congress. You have to keep that in the conditions of the Amazon Biome must preserve 80 percent of each property legal reserve, as well as respect for the permanent preservation areas along rivers, water sources and the mountaintops. And in the same way, in the Closed biome  current rules are maintained, because now this is the biome attacked by the agribusiness model, with the expansion of soy and sugar cane.
Second, it is necessary to strengthen federal and state oversight to monitor, enforce the law and the penalties for those who violate it. Third, we need to create a restrictive agricultural map, which prevents access to rural credit and other incentives, for example, ban the advance of soybeans and livestock above a certain parallel in the Legal Amazon. Fourth, the Brazilian government should ban the export of wood sourced from native forests. That would eliminate a foreign market that does not benefit the people of Brazil and only serves the profit of transnational corporations. And fifth, to prevent any form of charcoal, with native forest, Cerrado biome of Amazonia. And that applies the Constitution as it determines: the properties that do not meet the social and do not respect the environment, must be expropriated and for land reform.
And this is happening?
JPS: Despite being a provision of the Constitution, so far the INCRA (National Institute for Colonization and Agrarian Reform), for this reason, expropriated hacienda just a Jequitinhonha Valley (MG). But it could be applied to hundreds of large landowners offenders. Just know that, according to IBAMA, the penalties applied to large properties now total more than 6 billion reais. This is also one of the reasons for the changes in the Forest Code, as these landowners offenders (including three federal deputies) want an amnesty. What we should do is, instead of an amnesty, expropriate and distribute land to agrarian reform.
Finally, we need to change our policy on beef production, which today is used mostly for export, as a natural meat, without any process of industrialization. We are exporters of nature and labor, labor. Thus, export less, but with added value and develop an intensive livestock, without relying on the expansion of the Amazon.
How the MST is positioned against such practices and what actions you propose?
JPS: The MST and other movements of the Via Campesina, the National Federation of Workers in Family Agriculture (FETRAF) cutistas sectors of the National Confederation of Agricultural Workers (CONTAG), environmental movements, the pastoral social work in rural and agricultural researchers in our universities, we have a united around these issues, defending the thesis that I presented above.
So as a movement, we only add to the cry unit. We all have the same vision on the problems of the necessary preservation of the environment. So we raise the flag all you may continue to increase food production in a sustainable manner, improving agricultural production techniques. No need to cut down any tree and more. We defend the flag of deforestation Zero! In defense of our forests and our rich fauna. On the other hand, we join all entities, movements, universities and government sectors of the National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA), Fiocruz, National Cancer Institute, a national campaign against the use of pesticides and for life. Against the practice of agribusiness model, with its irresponsibility and aggression to the environment and health of individuals through the use of agricultural poisons. Practice that has transformed Brazil into the world's largest consumer of poisons and, ultimately, is only profit for nine corporations.
Note:  The Closed biome is located in the Central Plateau region, which occupies 24 percent of Brazilian territory, something like two million square kilometers.
João Pedro Stédile is a leading agricultural economist, leader of the international movement Via Campesina. Spanish translation for www.sinpermiso.info: Carlos Abel Suarez.
Taaducido al inglés por http://tradukka.com/es